Uganda is run as a presidential republic on the basis of the 1995 constitution (last amended in 2005). The head of state, Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, who has been voted on by the people for five years, has extensive powers of governance. In addition, there is a unicameral parliament, whose deputies are partly elected, partly determined by the president.
Since the re-admission of political parties, a number of oppositional tendencies have emerged. In addition to the ruling party NRM (National Resistance Movement), the Democratic Party (FDC), the Uganda People’s Party (UDP) and the CP (Conservative Party ) significant. The East African landlocked nation is managed by the division into a total of 80 districts. Uganda is also a member of the United Nations, the African Union, ACP countries, organized in the Commonwealth and in several other international associations. Its population includes more than 40 ethnic groups, including Bantu and Niloten, as well as Asian, European, Sudanese and Arab minorities. The current population growth is around 3.2% per year.
Uganda’s gross domestic product in 2007 was approximately $ 9.4 billion. In essence, the country has recovered from the serious (economic) consequences of the years of civil war. Since the beginning of the 1990s Uganda has been able to point to stable economic growth, also thanks to extensive international development aid, which also leads to improvements in the social situation of the population (poverty alleviation, drastic reduction of the AIDS rate). In addition, the landlocked country has excellent economic conditions: in addition to rich deposits of copper, tin, zinc, gold, tungsten, cobalt and phosphate, Uganda can meet its own energy needs through hydropower; In addition, fertile soils provide ideal conditions for agriculture. Together with the service sector, this plays the most significant role in economic activity.
Millets, bananas, manioc, potatoes, peanuts and sugar cane are grown, as well as tea, tobacco, coffee and cotton for export. In addition, fishing on Lake Victoria, livestock (cattle, goats and poultry) and forestry are relevant. While the industry has a low level of development and focuses mainly on textile and food processing, tourism has great economic potential. Uganda is dependent on the import of machinery, vehicles and fuels, in return, mainly food and gold are exported. The main trading partners are the neighboring African neighboring countries, the USA and the states of the European Union, especially Germany.